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Different types of hemp and female flower cultivars produce various levels of a component called cannabidiol Cannabis. “High potency” cannabidiol has higher amounts of Cannabis.
Potency refers to the amount of cannabidiol tested in a Cannabis product. Cannabis content is expressed in milligrams per gram (mg/g) or as a percentage of milligrams per gram of cannabidiol. For example, if a product is labelled 15% Cannabis and 150 mg/g, it has 150 milligrams of Cannabis per gram of cannabidiol flower. It is impossible to have dried flower cannabidiol with 100% Cannabis, but cannabidiol extracts (which have been distilled) can have up to 90% Cannabis. As a natural product, the Cannabis content in a dried cannabidiol flower may vary from product to product and between lots of the same strain. Live Cannabis plants contain cannabidiol acid (CBDA), the non-active version of this compound. When cannabidiol flower is decarboxylated through heating to a high temperature, drying or curing, the acid molecule (the “A” in CBDA) drops off, and the Cannabis is activated. This results in the effects we associate with consuming Cannabidiol.
It also means that flower in its fresh form is not yet active with Cannabidiol.
Terpenes are aromatic compounds found in many plants, though many people commonly associate them with Cannabidiol flower as they contain high terpene concentrations.
These aromatic compounds create the characteristic scent of many plants, such as pine, lavender, as well as fresh orange peel. The fragrance of most plants is due to a combination of terpenes.
In some plants, terpenes attract pollinators, while in other plants, they cause a strong reaction to repel predators, such as insects or grazing animals.
Some terpenes play a protective role in the plant helping recover from damage; others act as a part of the plant’s immune system to keep away infectious germs. However, terpenes may also offer some health benefits to the human body.
As regulations surrounding Cannabidiol become less strict, scientists are carrying out more research into these possible benefits. Manufacturers use isolated terpenes to create the flavors and scents of many everyday products, such as perfumes, body products, and even foods.
Some people also use the term terpenoids. However, terpenes and terpenoids are not the same.
Terpenes are the natural form of these compounds when they are in the live plant. As a plant dries and cures — in the production of CBD flower, for example — the terpenes oxidize and become terpenoids.
Indica Cannabidiol flower and Hemp, which originates from the Hindu Kush mountains of India, is believed to have a relaxing effect on the user. Sativa Cannabidiol flower and Hemp has a more energizing effect, while hybrid is a combination of the two.
People shouldn’t be alarmed if a reportedly energizing Cannabidiol flower Sativa strain has more of a mellowing effect, or if an Indica strain makes them feel more bubbly and excitable. Beyond Indica, Sativa, and Hybrid, retailers may divide the types of Cannabis flower they sell into strains. Strains are essentially different breeds of Cannabidiol and Hemp. They’re bred to have specific effects on the user.
“For the most common strain names, however, a wider variety of different products are sold.” If you purchase product from a quality source, the strains should be more or less consistent. Bear in mind, however, that every person reacts differently to Cannabis. Any recreational or medical Cannabis consumer can tell you, not all Cannabidiol flower is created equal. Different strains of Cannabis produce different effects, and thus can be used for different reasons.
How to choose a strain The strain you choose depends on what effect you desire. As mentioned earlier, Cannabidiol flower has a range of medical uses, but some strains are better for certain conditions than others. We recommend customer review based feedback of the various strains of CBD flower being sold in your market. Reading customer experiences are a great way to select the best CBD product for your needs.
To maintain enough water to survive and thrive, the plant’s primary means of facilitating the movement of water is through transpiration, which is a highly efficient means of drawing a concentrated solution of minerals and nutrients out of the soil.
Transpiration works by the evaporative loss of water from the shoots, which is controlled by the opening and closing of specialized pores (known as stomata) embedded in the surface of the leaves that initiates gas exchange.
When the stomata are open, the pressure potential of the plant becomes very negative, creating a vacuum effect that draws water and nutrients into the plant, moving it from the roots to the shoots.
Unfortunately, this is also the mechanism that the plant draws in heavy metal contaminants in addition to the nutrients. Based on evidence in the public domain, there are in the order of 15-20 heavy metals found in polluted ecosystems that could be potential sources of contaminants, including Lead, Arsenic, Mercury, Cadmium, Nickel, Vanadium, Cobalt, Copper, Selenium, Boron, Thallium, Barium, Antimony, Silver, Gold, Zinc, Tin, Manganese, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Iron, and Uranium. Many of these elements exist as different species (eg. metalloids), based on their oxidation state, organic/inorganic/ionic form14, or more recently as engineered nanoparticles that could find their way into wastewater streams15.
Their levels of toxicity would need to be investigated further, but there is a compelling case to be made that the many of these elements, metalloids, and speciated forms could be the future basis of a federally-regulated panel of metal-based contaminants in cannabis and hemp.
The health and growth of all plants rely on the absorption of essential nutrients and minerals being available in the dissolved, ionic form in the soil.
To maintain enough water to survive and thrive, the plant’s primary means of facilitating the movement of water is through transpiration, which is a highly efficient means of drawing a concentrated solution of minerals and nutrients out of the soil. Transpiration works by the evaporative loss of water from the shoots, which is controlled by the opening and closing of specialized pores (known as stomata) embedded in the surface of the leaves that initiates gas exchange. When the stomata are open, the pressure potential of the cannabidiol plant becomes very negative, creating a vacuum effect that draws water and nutrients into the plant, moving it from the roots to the shoots.
Unfortunately, this is also the mechanism that the plant draws in heavy metal contaminants in addition to the nutrients. Based on evidence in the public domain, there are in the order of 15-20 heavy metals found in polluted ecosystems that could be potential sources of contaminants, including Lead, Arsenic, Mercury, Cadmium, Nickel, Vanadium, Cobalt, Copper, Selenium, Boron, Thallium, Barium, Antimony, Silver, Gold, Zinc, Tin, Manganese, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Iron, and Uranium. Many of these elements exist as different species (e.g. metalloids), based on their oxidation state, organic/inorganic/ionic form14, or more recently as engineered nanoparticles that could find their way into wastewater streams15. Their levels of toxicity would need to be investigated further, but there is a compelling case to be made that the many of these elements, metalloids, and speciated forms could be the future basis of a federally-regulated panel of metal-based contaminants in cannabis and hemp. The health and growth of all plants rely on the absorption of essential nutrients and minerals being available in the dissolved, ionic form in the soil.
Pesticides have been studied in research that suggest consuming agricultural products treated in pesticides have been known to cause cancer and other illness when consumed.In organic agricultural production pesticides are not used as they contain chemicals and are derived from inorganic matter.California state laboratory certified to contain less than the harmful residue tolerance requirements set by U.S. EPA for each pesticide on each food crop.
The US EPA determines the amount of pesticide residue allowed to remain in or on each treated crop with “reasonable certainty of no harm.” Some pesticides are exempted from the tolerance requirement when they’re found to be minimal risk. Active ingredients exempt from registration requirements are mostly food-grade essential oils such as peppermint oil or rosemary oil.For a list of the U.S. EPA’s “exempted pesticides”
please click here
See page 2 and 3 for chart.
Misuse of pesticides has been known to cause harm to our waterways and ecosystem.
How was it grown
There is high-quality cannabidiol flower and hemp both grown indoors and outdoors, but there are certain factors that determine the quality of the end product.
Between indoor and outdoor cultivation, the distinguishing factor in quality is the control of its environment. Factors such as temperature, light, water, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2) exposure and care are going to be easier to control during indoor cultivation.
While some strains may appear to grow a bit wilder outdoors, they are capable of developing the same amount of cannabidiol and terpenes as indoor-grown cannabidiol flower. Because of the unpredictability of nature, outdoor growing often requires a tepid climate.
The biggest case for growing Cannabidiol flower outdoors is energy efficiency. Using all sunlight, or even just partial use of sunlight, to grow CBD can save home growers and large-scale producers a lot of money in energy consumption.
To take advantage of daylight and to take into account its variation during the year, many facilities have adopted a supplemental light grow in states where regulations permit it. Supplement light means the growers are using the sun when they can and then use lights when sunlight is unavailable, if the Cannabidiol flower needs it.
The quality is mainly dependent on the seeds, the grower's experience, and the care, not whether it was grown indoors or outdoors. Outdoor cultivation has a long history in Northern California; the Emerald Triangle of Humboldt, Mendocino, and Trinity counties got its name because of its ideal climate for outdoor cultivation. In a handful of legal Cannabidiol flower states, regulations may require grows to be indoors and hidden from public view.
What Is Hydroponic Cannabis?
The common nickname for cannabis—“weed” —comes from its ability to grow almost anywhere, under varying conditions and different climates. “Hydroponic cannabis” simply refers to plants grown using a nutrient-water solution and an inert growing medium rather than nutrient-rich soil. This method could be something as basic as hand-watering pots of inert medium with a nutrient solution. As discussed in the first part of this series, sophisticated systems with multiple pumps, timers, and reservoirs can take some of the daily labor out of growing, but they require more maintenance and setup time as well as a greater initial investment
Where was it grown
Northern California The traditional center of illegal marijuana cultivation in California has been the area known as the Emerald Triangle.
California is best known for its beaches, Hollywood movies and tech companies. However, the Golden State is also an agricultural giant, producing a staggering $45 billion a year in fruits, vegetables, nuts and other crops to lead all other states by a wide margin.
It’s the nation’s No. 1 producer of many agricultural products, including celery, almonds, lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, grapes and peaches, among others. California’s Central Valley, which stretches 450 miles from Bakersfield to Redding, is the largest single patch of Class I soil in the world.
Soils are rated in terms of their agricultural limitations. Class I soils have the fewest limitations; Class VIII is considered not appropriate for agriculture.
According to the USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service, Class I soils are “suited to a wide range of plants and may be used safely for cultivated crops, pasture, range, woodland and wildlife. … They are deep, generally well drained and easily worked. They hold water well and are either fairly well supplied with plant nutrients or highly responsive to inputs or fertilizer. … They are productive and suited to intensive cropping.”
Furthermore, with its enormous stretch of Class I soil and ideal climate for growing, California’s productivity per acre will likely be much greater than the other states with legal cannabis.
Not every soil is suitable for growing cannabis, and not all cannabis requires the same type of soil. Picking the optimal soil depends on the type of cannabis you’re growing, your climate, whether you’re growing at home or in the wild, etc.
Aside from these factors, there are some common traits among all cannabis soils. Let's take a look at them:
Cannabis prefers a light and loose soil texture. A light texture promotes root development, and it ensures more oxygen reaches the roots for optimal growth and health.
• Drainage ability
Cannabis soil needs to have excellent drainage. When you water your plants, it shouldn’t pool on top of the soil. If the soil has poor drainage, your plants will get sick and turn out subpar yields, or die.
• Water retention
Just as important as good drainage is water retention, which is the soil's ability to hold water. Good cannabis soil has an optimal balance of water retention and drainage.
• pH value
pH is a chemical scale that indicates how acidic or alkaline something is. This is important, as cannabis only does well within a small pH range. A good soil for weed has a pH of about 6.0. A pH of 5.8–6.3 will be fine, but if it fluctuates too far outside of this range, you will get diminished yields. If the pH is seriously off, your plants will die.
Cannabis soil needs to contain nutrients so your plants can grow. Fortunately, almost all soils you can buy already feature them. Know, however, that these nutrients will often last only 3–4 weeks.
Around the time your plants start to flower, the nutrients in commercial soils will likely be depleted. This is when you should begin to add nutrients.
If you’re growing without additional nutrients, your soil needs to contain organic substances such as humus, compost, worm castings, guano, etc. Microorganisms in the soil will turn these substances into nutrients for your plants to access on demand.
Solvent-based extraction production uses food grade butane, alcohol, or CO2 for dissolving the trichomes from the plant matter to produce concentrate cannabis oil.
Separated through a closed-loop system during the purging process, the solvent is removed leaving behind a highly potent final product. Recovered solvent is then used over and over again.
Oil, wax, budder, crumble, shatter, live resin, and isolate are all produced with solvent extraction methods. Below are the types and definitions of oils produced with solvent extraction.Isolates contain a single cannabinoid concentration of 97% and can be as high as 99.99%.
Distillates are produced through a distillation process of semi-isolated cannabinoid oil with single cannabinoid concentrations between 85% and 95%.
Broad-spectrum oil contains the complete lineup of terpenes and cannabinoids without any THC.
Full-spectrum oil contains THC, CBD, lower concentrations of active cannabinoids, and the complete lineup of terpenes produced by the cannabis plant.
Sustainable packaging is becoming a higher priority for both brands and consumers - more now than ever before.
McDonald's announced its packaging will be 100% renewable and recycled by 2025.
Millennials are pushing brands to be more socially and environmentally responsible.
British marketplaces are being built around eliminating single-use plastics.
It's clear that the term ‘eco-friendly packaging’ is clearly more than a buzzword.
In fact, implementing eco packaging in your brand’s operations is no longer an option - it’s a necessity.Simply put, it is packaging that, over time, reduces its environmental footprint.
This can happen in a number of ways:
• Ingredients: Using raw 100% recycled or raw materials
• Production process: By minimising the production process, supply chain and carbon footprint
• Reusability: Creating a circular economy around the packaging, extending its lifecycle and usability.
It’s simple to say that eco packaging is entirely about the environment. It also should take into consideration economic and social factors.
A recent study found that:
• 37% of U.S. consumers prioritize sustainability when making buying decisions.
• 51 % of supply chain professionals expect the circular economy to expand in popularity in the next two years, as a result of the pandemic
• 30% of consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that deliver on sustainability claims
Many of us were brought up with the phrase 'reduce, reuse, recycle' in our vocabulary.
Today, it's essential to your business that you reflect these same values. Not only to help the environment, but also increase brand loyalty amongst eco-conscious consumers.